Varicose veins of the lower extremities are manifested by an expansion of the superficial veins of the legs, which accompanies impaired blood flow and valve failure. How to recognize a disease and what to do?
Currently, varicose veins are very common: they are observed in about 17 to 25% of people. In adolescence, before the onset of puberty, this disease develops in both sexes with the same frequency. However, in women in adulthood, varicose veins are observed twice as often as in men. A similar picture can be explained by significant hormonal changes at the onset of menstruation, while carrying a child. As a result, the tone of the veins is weakened, they dilate, and venous circulation is impaired.
A professional phlebologist indicated what factors should be paid attention to in order to avoid this disease or replace it in time and avoid serious consequences.
what is the reason
Today there are many theories as to why varicose veins in the legs develop. But still, the main reason is a violation of the valve apparatus of the veins. In case of insufficiency of the valves of the veins in a standing person, there is an influx of blood downward under the influence of gravity. When walking, the muscles in the lower leg that surround the deep veins contract. As a result, the veins empty and the venous pressure increases. As a result, blood enters the superficial veins, they stretch - varicose veins appear.
There are a number of factors that directly affect the progression of varicose veins. In women, varicose veins often develop as a result of pregnancy. During this period, the volume of blood in the female body increases significantly, hormonal changes in the body affect the condition of the venous wall. In many cases, varicose veins during pregnancy are reversible, that is, after childbirth they gradually disappear.
Very often varicose veins of the lower extremities are manifested in people who have to stand for a long time during labor. Obesity is another risk factor for varicose veins: obese people have increased intra-abdominal pressure and, as a result, varicose veins. Varicose veins can sometimes be a consequence of leg surgery.
Another factor that predisposes to varicose veins is age. As a rule, over time, the valves and walls of the veins age - elasticity is lost, the veins are stretched. Varicose veins often occur in patients with deep vein thrombosis with birth defects of the blood vessels.
Visibly and invisibly
The visible symptoms of varicose veins in the legs are the appearance of a network of fine veins on the surface of the skin of the legs, mainly in the thigh. Such a varicose mesh is easier to see in those who suffer from cellulite. Sometimes it is the cellulite that becomes a kind of warning sign of varicose veins, as the fat deposits in the cellulite compress the venous vessels, which makes blood circulation difficult and varicose veins appear.
A symptom of varicose veins is often the manifestation of pain in the legs.
The sensations may be sharp and may also have signs of tightness. Often with varicose veins, pain in the calves occurs. It occurs mainly in the second half of the day, after straining the legs. There may be a feeling of severe heaviness in the legs, cramps may occur at night, trophic changes gradually become visible on the legs.
So, a person who observes the appearance of a capillary network, periodic manifestations of pain and edema should consult a doctor. There are a number of different tests that can assess the condition of the veins and the degree of disease development. If the patient has uncomplicated varicose veins, in most cases, instrumental diagnostic methods are not used.
Treatment and prevention
Conservative treatment of varicose veins is prescribed mainly for people who have contraindications to surgery. In addition, such treatment is indicated if the patient has a slight expansion of the veins, which is an exclusively cosmetic defect. The aim of conservative treatment is also to prevent the progression of this disease. For this purpose, patients are advised to use an elastic bandage for legs with varicose veins. In addition, compression stockings are shown.
People who tend to have varicose veins or already have this condition should regularly put their feet on a raised platform throughout the day, resting for several minutes. There are also special exercises for the lower leg and the foot, aimed at activating the musculo-venous pump. It is a periodic extension and flexion of the ankle and knee joints.
With varicose veins, it is necessary to wear only comfortable shoes with a low heel and a hard sole. You should not stand for a long time, allow physical stress, stay in rooms with high temperature and humidity for a long time. In a dream, it is advisable to keep the legs in an elevated position.
Patients should limit the intake of fluids and salt, try to get rid of excess weight. For the treatment of varicose veins, it is necessary to periodically take diuretics - drugs that improve the tone of the veins. In addition, if there are indications, the patient may be prescribed drugs that stimulate microcirculation in the tissues. Treatment for varicose veins may also include the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If the patient has an uncomplicated form of the disease, physical therapy is shown to him. Swimming, other water procedures, foot baths with lukewarm water, to which 5-10 percent sodium chloride solution is added, are very useful.
However, a drastic method of treating varicose veins is surgery. But there are a number of contraindications here. In particular, such an operation is not carried out if the patient suffers from concomitant diseases of the lungs, cardiovascular system, kidneys and liver.
Prevention of varicose veins includes a number of measures aimed at preventing the signs of the disease. It is useful for each person to periodically keep their legs raised, take breaks during sedentary work, and not wear underwear that constricts the body. A good method of preventing varicose veins is a contrast shower, the inclusion of blood-friendly foods in the diet, and some physical exercise. At the first signs of varicose veins, you should consult a doctor in order to prevent the progression of the disease.